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The Urban Child Institute: Poverty Can Jeopardize the Development of Literacy and Early Reading Habits

“While half of middle-income children in 4th grade are considered proficient, closer to 17% of low-income 4th graders earn proficient mark.”

Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2010). “EARLY WARNING! Why Reading By The End of Third Grade Matters.” Available here.

“Early reading skills predict general academic performance, and early deficits reduce the likelihood of catching up later on.”

Whitehurst, J., and Lonigan, C. (1998). Child Development and Emergent Literacy. Child Development, Vol. 69, No. 3 (Jun., 1998), pp. 848-872. Available here.

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